Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a technique that uses a hand-held Doppler transducer (placed on the surface of the cranial skin) to measure the velocity and pulsatility of blood flow within the intracranial and the extracranial arteries. Introduced by Rune Aaslid in 1982, it has become indispensable in clinical practice. The main obstacle to ultrasound penetration of the skull is bone. Low frequencies, 1-2 MHz, reduce the attenuation of the ultrasound wave caused by bone. Transcranial Doppler also provides the advantage of acoustic windows representing specific points of the skull where the bone is thin enough to allow ultrasounds to penetrate. It has its main application in the diagnosis and monitoring of vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.